# Difference between revisions of "Group Examples"

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=== Non-abelian Groups === | === Non-abelian Groups === | ||

+ | |||

+ | ==== <div id="Dihedral_groups">Dihedral groups</div> ==== | ||

+ | The [ftp://apcocoa.org Dihedral] group of degree n (denoted by Dih_n) is the group of symmetries of a regular polynom. This non-abelian group consists of 2n elements, n rotations and n reflections. Let r be a single rotation and s be an arbitrary reflection. Then the group has the following representation | ||

+ | Dih_n = {r,s | r^n = s^2 = (rs)^2 = 1} | ||

+ | |||

+ | ==== <div id="Triangle_groups">Triangle groups</div> ==== | ||

+ | The [ftp://apcocoa.org Triangle] groups describe the application of reflections across the sides of a triangle (A,B,C) with the three reflections a,b,c and can be represented as the following: | ||

+ | Triangle(l,m,n) = {a,b,c | a^2 = b^2 = c^2 = (ab)^l = (bc)^m = (ca)^n = 1} | ||

+ | There are three different cases depending on the choice of the parameters l,m,n: | ||

+ | The euclidian case: 1/l + 1/m + 1/n = 1 | ||

+ | The spherical case: 1/l + 1/m + 1/n > 1 | ||

+ | The hyperbolical case: 1/l + 1/m + 1/n < 1 | ||

+ | |||

+ | ==== <div id="vonDyck_groups">von Dyck groups</div> ==== | ||

+ | The [ftp://apcocoa.org von Dyck] groups are sometimes referred to as ordinary triangle groups and are subgroups of index 2 in Triangle(l, m, n) generated by words of even length in the generators a, b, c. A specific representation is given for x = ab, y = ca, yx = cb: | ||

+ | D(l,m,n) = {x,y | x^{l} = y^{m} = (xy)^{m}} | ||

+ | |||

+ | ==== <div id="Fibonacci_groups">Fibonacci groups</div> ==== | ||

+ | The [ftp://apcocoa.org Fibonacci] groups are related to the inductive definition of the Fibonacci numbers f_{i} + f_{i+1} = f_{i+2} where f_{1} = f_{2} = 1. These groups have the following finite presentation: | ||

+ | F(2,m) = {x_1,...,x_m | x_{i}x_{i+1} = x_{i+2}} | ||

+ | |||

+ | ==== <div id="OrdinaryTetrahedon_groups">Ordinary Tetrahedon groups</div> ==== | ||

+ | The Ordinary Tetrahedon Groups are groups with the following representation where e_i >= 2 and fi >= 2 for all i. | ||

+ | G = {x,y,z | x^{e_1} = y^{e_2} = z^{e_3} = (xy^{-1})^{f_1} = (yz^{-1})^{f_2} = (zx^{-1})^{f_3} = 1} | ||

==== <div id="Baumslag_groups">Baumslag groups</div> ==== | ==== <div id="Baumslag_groups">Baumslag groups</div> ==== |

## Revision as of 14:49, 11 June 2013

ftp://apcocoa.org/pub/symbolic_data

### Non-abelian Groups

#### Dihedral groups

The Dihedral group of degree n (denoted by Dih_n) is the group of symmetries of a regular polynom. This non-abelian group consists of 2n elements, n rotations and n reflections. Let r be a single rotation and s be an arbitrary reflection. Then the group has the following representation

Dih_n = {r,s | r^n = s^2 = (rs)^2 = 1}

#### Triangle groups

The Triangle groups describe the application of reflections across the sides of a triangle (A,B,C) with the three reflections a,b,c and can be represented as the following:

Triangle(l,m,n) = {a,b,c | a^2 = b^2 = c^2 = (ab)^l = (bc)^m = (ca)^n = 1}

There are three different cases depending on the choice of the parameters l,m,n:

The euclidian case: 1/l + 1/m + 1/n = 1 The spherical case: 1/l + 1/m + 1/n > 1 The hyperbolical case: 1/l + 1/m + 1/n < 1

#### von Dyck groups

The von Dyck groups are sometimes referred to as ordinary triangle groups and are subgroups of index 2 in Triangle(l, m, n) generated by words of even length in the generators a, b, c. A specific representation is given for x = ab, y = ca, yx = cb:

D(l,m,n) = {x,y | x^{l} = y^{m} = (xy)^{m}}

#### Fibonacci groups

The Fibonacci groups are related to the inductive definition of the Fibonacci numbers f_{i} + f_{i+1} = f_{i+2} where f_{1} = f_{2} = 1. These groups have the following finite presentation:

F(2,m) = {x_1,...,x_m | x_{i}x_{i+1} = x_{i+2}}

#### Ordinary Tetrahedon groups

The Ordinary Tetrahedon Groups are groups with the following representation where e_i >= 2 and fi >= 2 for all i.

G = {x,y,z | x^{e_1} = y^{e_2} = z^{e_3} = (xy^{-1})^{f_1} = (yz^{-1})^{f_2} = (zx^{-1})^{f_3} = 1}

#### Baumslag groups

The Baumslag (respectively Baumslag-Solitar) groups are examples of two-generator one-relator groups. The first variante of this group has the presentation

<a, b | a^m = b^n = 1 >

where m, n are natural numbers. The second variante of this group (the Baumslag-Solitar group) has the presentation

<a, b | b*a^m = a^n*b>

where m, n are natural numbers. Computations of Baumslag groups.

(Reference: )

#### Braid groups

For a natural number n the Braid group has n strands and n - 1 generators: g_1, g_2, ... , g_(n - 1) and relations: g_i * g_j = g_j * g_i for |i - j| >= 2 and g_i * g_(i + 1) * g_i = g_(i + 1) * g_i * g_(i + 1) for 1 <= i <= n - 2 Type Braid(n, [DegreeBound, LoopBound]) to calculate the Gröbner base.

#### Dihedral groups

The Dihedral group of degree n (natural number) has the presentation <a, b | a^2 = b^n = 1, aba = b^-1> Type Dihedral(n, [DegreeBound, LoopBound]) to calculate the Gröbner base.